All types of synthetic fibers have some common features. These are-
i. Synthetic fibers are much cheaper than natural fibers.
ii. They are very strong and elastic.
iii. Fabrics made with them are easy to wash and dirt is easily removed.
iv. This type of fiber can be made at any time of the year. But natural fiber is made at certain times of the year.
v. When synthetic fibers come in contact with heat, they become very compressed and the fibers break down. So if someone goes to the fire after this fiber cloth, his cloth is ruined very quickly. It’s much more risky. That’s why cotton clothes should be worn later when working near fires.
vi. Synthetic fibers can’t pull people’s sweat. It is better to wear cotton clothes when it is very sunny outside on a hot day. Because cotton cloth has holes in places, sweat may accumulate there.
vii. Fabrics made of this fiber are not always tolerable for the body.
viii. The process of making synthetic fiber is very harmful for our environment. This is because toxic fumes are made from factories when it is made.
Here are some important synthetic fibers:
Nylon is the first man-made synthetic fiber. This is because the compounds from which nylon is made do not come directly from nature. They come artificially. Nylon is a type of polymer compound, it consists of many monomers.
Nylon is a polyamide fiber. Polymerization is made by polymerizing a chemical called amide (-CO-NH-) which is another name for nylon.
Nylon monomers are made of different types of acids / di acids or amines / di amines. They are connected to each other with Amide Bond.
Nylon is made using coal, water and air. From these elements some acid and amine compounds are made which later react to form nylon.
The first nylon was made in 1935. That nylon was then called Nylon 6: 6. This nylon was made of carbon because coal contains carbon.
Made with all types of nylon Acid and Amide. Chemically, these two chemicals are called adipic acid, the other is hexamethylene diamine. Nylon 6: 6 is formed by the reaction between them.
Apidic acid is not an organic acid. It is mainly a de-carboxylic acid. That is, its carbon molecule has two carboxyl radicals on either side. The carbon molecule of hexamethylene diamine has two amine bases on either side.
When these two chemically react, water comes out of them. These types of reactions are called condensation reactions
The polymerization of these two chemicals begins with the condensation reaction. This reaction will continue until they combine to form a giant nucleus.
To get nylon fiber, this molten polymer has to be spinned, drawn and textured step by step, then finally nylon yarn can be obtained.
The benefits of using nylon
i) Nylon yarn is much stiffer and elastic or elastic. So it is used to tie something stiff.
ii) It is possible to go up and down the hill using nylon rope.
iii) Nylon is light so its rope can be easily washed.
iv) Nylon is used as parachute rope.
v) The color of nylon is very bright. It can be given any color.
vi) Nylons do not hold too much water but they can hold our body heat.
Rayon is one of the artificial fibers. It is not found in nature. It is usually called Artificial Silk or Artificial Silk. Natural silk is very expensive. But Rayon is much cheaper. Its demand in the market is much higher. In the nineteenth century many high quality Rayon began to be made. This is the first man-made artificial fiber.
The way Rayon is made
Rayon is primarily made from wood pulp or wood pulp. Wood pulp is available from our nature. Since Rayon is made from wood pulp from nature, it is also called Semi synthetic fiber.
Wood pulp contains a polymer called cellulose. During the preparation of rayon, this cellulose is converted into a soluble compound by undergoing various chemical reactions. Soluble substances are driven by a type of machine called a spinneret. The spinneret machine has a lid with many holes. Soluble substances come out through these holes in the form of yarn. The yarns are then sticky and sticky which is called viscous compound.
These yarns or fibers that come out later are made solid. These yarns are Rayon Fiber.
The advantage of using Rayon
i) It is much cheaper than natural silk.
ii) It can be given different colors.
iii) It is used to make different types of carpets and bed sheets.
iv) It can be combined with other fibers to make new type of fiber.
Polyester is a type of synthetic yarn or Artificial Fiber. Poly means a lot. So the word polyester means a polymer made of many esters. In polyester, esters are linked to each other by Ester Linkage. Observe the chemical structure of an ester-
There are two types of polyester depending on the chemical composition.
- Thermoset Polyester
- Thermoplastic Polyester
How to make polyester
Ingredients for making polyester are taken from coal, air, water and petroleum. It is made by chemical reactions of acids and alcohols.
Polyester is a very long molecule and its body is very strong. In the laboratory, polyester is made using ethylene glycol alcohol and terephthalic acid. This reaction of forming esters is called condensation reaction where water is removed from the reagent and new product is formed. The chemical name of the polyester produced in this reaction is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). Thus the system of formation of polyester in the reaction of acid and alcohol is called polymerization.
The annual production of PET is about 40 million tons and its production is increasing by 7% every year. About 65% of its total production is used for fiber or yarn making, 5% for film making and 30% for packaging.
Another important polyester is Polytrimethylene Terephthalate. It is derived from an alcohol called benzene-4-di carboxylic acid and propane-1,3-di al.
The use of polyester depends on their composition. They have many benzene rings in their molecular structure which give them firmness. As a result, nothing happens due to the extreme heat of the cloth made of them and their color is not lost in the light.
When polyethylene terephthalate acts as a fiber or yarn, its molecules are arranged in one direction.
When a film is made with it, its molecules are arranged in two directions.
When packaging is done with it, its molecules are arranged in three directions.
Advantages of using polyester yarn
i. Some are as soft as polyester foam which is used to make pillows.
ii. It is used to make a variety of liquid supply bottles.
iii. Dirt is easily removed by washing clothes made of their yarn.
iv. It is used to polish the wood used in guitars and pianos.
Polyesters combine with other materials to form different types of yarn. For example, when polyester is mixed with cotton, it becomes poly cotton. When polyester is mixed with wool, it turns into poly wool.
The best example of polyester is Terylene. When terylene is combined with cotton, it makes terry cotton.
Acrylic is a type of synthetic fiber. It looks like woolen cloth or wool. Acrylic is a type of artificial wool or artificial wool. Natural wool is much more expensive. So acrylic is used more for being cheaper.
How to make acrylic
Acrylic is a type of polymer. Its monomer is Acrylonitrile. It is made from a polymer called Polyacrylonitrile in a polymerization method. Its chemical signal is C3H3N. One unit of acrylic contains about 900 acrylonitrile monomers.
Polyacrylonitrile is first dissolved in a special solvent. This solution may vary from time to time, such as sodium thio cyanide or dimethyl formide. They are then placed in a spinneret for processing. Spinneret has many holes or holes through which the acrylic thread comes out. These yarns are then solidified for workability.
Advantages of using acrylic
i. This yarn is bright and soft.
ii. It is cheap and used in carpets.
iii. Its yarn is used a lot to make winter clothes.
iv. Pipes and lenses are made with some acrylic. That means acrylic is used as an alternative to glass.